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Business English – stock market

letöltés (3)

BUSINESS  ENGLISH  VOCABULARY

Investments – Stock Market


Word

Meaning

Bid The price a buyer is willing to offer for shares in a company.
Blue Chip Stocks Stocks of leading companies with a reputation for stable growth and earnings.
Bond Certificate issued by companies and governments to their lenders.
Capital Money and other property of companies used in transacting the business.
Capital stock All shares representing ownership of a company.
Commodities Products such as agricultural products and natural resources (wood, oil and metals) that are traded on a separate, authorized commodities exchange.
Dividend A portion of a  company’s earnings which is paid to the shareholders/stockholders on a quarterly or annual basis.
Equity The value of stocks and shares;  the net value of mortgaged property.
Equities Stocks and shares which represent a portion of the capital of a company.
Futures Contracts to buy or sell securities at a future date.
Insider All those who have access to inside information concerning the company.
Insider dealing / trading Buying or selling with the help of information known only to those connected with the business.
IPO Initial Public Offering – selling part of a company on the stock market.
Issue Put into circulation a number of a company’s shares for sale.
Liabilities The debts and obligations of a company or an individual.
Mortgage Agreement by which a bank or building society lends money for the purchase of property, such as a  house or apartment.  The property is the security for the loan.
Mutual fund Savings fund that uses cash from a pool of savers to buy securities such as stock, bonds or real estate.
Option The right to buy and sell certain securities at a specified price and period of time.
Par value Nominal face value.
Penny stock Shares selling at less than $1 a share.
Portfolio Various types of securities held by an individual or institution.
Securities Transferable certificates showing ownership of stocks, bonds, shares, options, etc.
Share The capital of a company is divided into shares which entitle the owner, or shareholder, to a proportion of the profits.
Share certificate Certificate representing the number of shares owned by an investor.
Shareholder Owner of shares.
Speculator Someone who buys and sells stocks and shares in the hope of making a profit through changes in their value.
Stock Shares (portion of the capital of a business company) held by an investor.
Stockbroker A licensed professional who buys and sells stocks and shares for clients in exchange for a fee called a ‘commission’.
Stockholder Person who owns stocks and shares.
Trader Investor who holds stocks and securities for a short time (minutes, hours or days) with the objective of making profit from short-term gains in the market.
Investment is generally based on stock price rather than on an evaluation of the company.
Trading session Period during which the Stock Exchange is open for trading.
Venture capital Money raised by companies to finance new ventures in exchange for percentage ownership.
Yield Return on investment shown as a percentage.(from learn-english-today.com)
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Business letters 2.

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Writing Business Letters


Apologizing
  • We are sorry for the delay in replying to …
  • I regret any inconvenience caused (by) …
  • I would like to apologize for the (delay, inconvenience)…
  • Once again, please accept my apologies for …
Orders
  • Thank you for your quotation of …
  • We are pleased to place an order with your company for..
  • We would like to cancel our order n° …..
  • Please confirm receipt of our order.
  • I am pleased to acknowledge receipt of your order n° …..
  • Your order will be processed as quickly as possible.
  • It will take about (two/three) weeks to process your order.
  • We can guarantee you delivery before …(date)
  • Unfortunately these articles are no longer available /
    are out of stock.
Prices
  • Please send us your price list.
  • You will find enclosed our most recent catalogue and price list.
  • Please note that our prices are subject to change
    without notice.
  • We have pleasure in enclosing a detailed quotation.
  • We can make you a firm offer of …
Referring to payment
  • Our terms of payment are as follows  …
  • Our records show that we have not yet received
    payment of …
  • According to our records …
  • Please send payment as soon as possible.
  • You will receive a credit note for the sum of …
Enclosing documents
  • I am enclosing …
  • Please find enclosed …
  • You will find enclosed …
Closing remarks
  • If we can be of any further assistance, please let us know.
  • If I can help in any way, please do not hesitate to
    contact me.
  • If you require more information …
  • For further details …
  • Thank you for taking this into consideration.
  • Thank you for your help.
  • We hope you are happy with this arrangement.
  • We hope you can settle this matter to our satisfaction.
Referring to future business
  • We look forward to a successful working relationship in the future.
  • We would be (very) pleased to do business with your company.
  • I would be happy to have an opportunity to work with
    your firm.
Referring to future contact
  • I look forward to seeing you next week.
  • Looking forward to hearing from you, …
  • Looking forward to receiving your comments,
  • I look forward to meeting you on the (date).
  • I would appreciate a reply at your earliest convenience.
  • An early reply would be appreciated.
Ending business letters
◊ Sincerely,    }
◊ Yours sincerely,}  for all customers / clients
◊ Sincerely yours,}
◊ Yours faithfully, in more formal letters
◊ Regards, for those you already know and/or with whom
you have a working relationship

(published on learn-english-today.com)

Business letters

letöltés

Writing Business Letters

Useful phrases and vocabulary for writing business letters.


Salutation • Dear Mr. Brown
• Dear Ms. White
• Dear Sir
• Dear Madam
• Dear Sir or Madam
• Gentlemen
Starting •  We are writing
– to inform you that …
– to confirm …
– to request …
– to enquire about …
• I am contacting you for the following reason…
• I recently read/heard about ….. and would like to know ….
• Having seen your advertisement in …, I would like to …
• I would be interested in (obtaining / receiving) …
• I received your address from —– and would like to …
Referring to previous
  contact
• Thank you for your letter of March 15.
• Thank you for contacting us.
• In reply to your request, …
• Thank you for your letter regarding …
• With reference to our telephone conversation yesterday…
• Further to our meeting last week …
• It was a pleasure meeting you in London last month.
• I enjoyed having lunch with you last week in Tokyo.
• I would just like to confirm the main points we discussed
on Tuesday.
Making a request • We would appreciate it if you would …
• I would be grateful if you could …
• Could you please send me …
• Could you possibly tell us / let us have …
• In addition, I would like to receive …
• It would be helpful if you could send us …
• I am interested in (obtaining / receiving) …
• I would appreciate your immediate attention to this matter.
• Please let me know what action you propose to take.
Offering help • Would you like us to …?
• We would be happy to …
• We are quite willing to …
• Our company would be pleased to …
Giving good news • We are pleased to announce that …
• I am delighted to inform you that ..
• You will be pleased to learn that …
Giving bad news • We regret to inform you that …
• I’m afraid it would not be possible to …
• Unfortunately we cannot / we are unable to …
• After careful consideration we have decided (not) to …
Complaining • I am writing to express my dissatisfaction with …
• I am writing to complain about …
• Please note that the goods we ordered on ( date )
have not yet arrived.
• We regret to inform you that our order n° —– is now
considerably overdue.
• I would like to query the transport charges which seem
unusually high.(published on learn-english-today.com)

Proverbs – Wisdom and advice 2.

Wisdom and Advice 

  • No man can serve two masters.
  • No man is indispensable.
  • No matter how long the night, the day is sure to come.
  • No news is good news.
  • No one should be judge in his own cause.
  • Nothing is certain but death and taxes.
  • Old habits die hard.
  • One falsehood spoils a thousand truths.
  • One man’s gravy is another man’s poison.
  • One man’s loss is another man’s gain.
  • One picture is worth ten thousand words.
  • One swallow does not make a summer.
  • Opportunity seldom knocks twice.
  • Paper can’t wrap up a fire.
  • Prevention is better than cure.
  • Rats desert a sinking ship.
  • Recognize and deal with reality, no matter how unpleasant it may be.
  • Seeing is believing.
  • Sharing and giving are the ways of God.
  • Something is better than nothing.
  • Spare the rod and spoil the child.
  • Speak when you’re spoken to.
  • Speech is silver, but silence is golden.
  • Still waters run deep.
  • Success has many fathers, while failure is an orphan.
  • The busy bee has no time for sorrow.
  • The darkest hour is just before the dawn.
  • The dawn does not come twice to awaken a man.
  • The end justifies the means.
  • The eyes are the mirror of the soul.
  • The hand you cannot bite, kiss.
  • The heart of man and the bottom of the sea are unfathomable.
  • the higher the monkey climbs the more he shows his tail.
  • The more one knows, the less one believes.
  • The rich man has his ice in the summer and the poor man gets his in the winter.
  • The sea refuses no river.
  • The squeaking wheel gets the oil.
  • There is no death, only a change of worlds.
  • There’s a black sheep in every flock.
  • They that dance must pay the fiddler.
  • Things are not always what they seem.
  • Two dogs are fighting for a bone, a third runs away with it.
  • Two’s company, but three’s a crowd.
  • United we stand, divided we fall.
  • We are not so much concerned if you are slow as when you come to a halt.
  • We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors; we borrow it from our children.
  • What can’t be cured must be endured.
  • What you don’t know can’t hurt you.
  • When all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail.
  • When the cat’s away, the mice will play.
  • Yesterday is history, tomorrow is mystery.
  • You can lead a horse to water, but you cannot make him drink.
  • You cannot have your cake and eat it.
  • You cannot make an omelette without breaking eggs.
  • You can’t tell a book by its cover.
  • You can’t wake up a person who is pretending to be asleep.
  • You don’t get something for nothing.
  • You never miss the water till the well runs dry.
  • You scratch my back, and I’ll scratch yours.

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(originally published on rong-chang.com)

Phrasal verbs 2.

hand something down give something used to someone else handed my old comic books down to my little cousin.
hand something in submit I have to hand in my essay by Friday.
hand something out to distribute to a group of people We will hand out the invitations at the door.
hand something over give (usually unwillingly) The police asked the man to hand overhis wallet and his weapons.
hang in stay positive (N.Amer., informal) Hang in there. I’m sure you’ll find a job very soon.
hang on wait a short time (informal) Hang on while I grab my coat and shoes!
hang out spend time relaxing (informal) Instead of going to the party we are just going to hang out at my place.
hang up end a phone call He didn’t say goodbye before he hung up.
holdsomeone/somethingback prevent from doing/going I had to hold my dog back because there was a cat in the park.
hold something back hide an emotion Jamie held back his tears at his grandfather’s funeral.
hold on wait a short time Please hold on while I transfer you to the Sales Department.
hold ontosomeone/something hold firmly using your hands or arms Hold onto your hat because it’s very windy outside.
holdsomeone/somethingup rob A man in a black mask held the bank upthis morning.
keep on doingsomething continue doing Keep on stirring until the liquid comes to a boil.
keep something fromsomeone not tell We kept our relationship from our parents for two years.
keepsomeone/somethingout stop from entering Try to keep the wet dog out of the living room.
keep something up continue at the same rate If you keep those results up you will get into a great college.
let someone down fail to support or help, disappoint I need you to be on time. Don’t let medown this time.
let someone in allow to enter Can you let the cat in before you go to school?
look aftersomeone/something take care of I have to look after my sick grandmother.
look down onsomeone think less of, consider inferior Ever since we stole that chocolate bar your dad has looked down on me.
look forsomeone/something try to find I’m looking for a red dress for the wedding.
look forward tosomething be excited about the future I’m looking forward to the Christmas break.
look into something investigate We are going to look into the price of snowboards today.
look out be careful, vigilant, and take notice Look out! That car’s going to hit you!
look out forsomeone/something be especially vigilant for Don’t forget to look out for snakes on the hiking trail.
look something over check, examine Can you look over my essay for spelling mistakes?
look something up search and find information in a reference book or database We can look her phone number up on the Internet.
look up to someone have a lot of respect for My little sister has always looked up to me.
make something up invent, lie about something Josie made up a story about why we were late.
make up forgive each other We were angry last night, but we made up at breakfast.
make someone up apply cosmetics to My sisters made me up for my graduation party.
mix something up confuse two or more things mixed up the twins’ names again!
pass away die His uncle passed away last night after a long illness.
pass out faint It was so hot in the church that an elderly lady passed out.
pass something out give the same thing to many people The professor passed the textbooks outbefore class.
pass something up decline (usually something good) passed up the job because I am afraid of change.
pay someone back return owed money Thanks for buying my ticket. I’ll pay youback on Friday.
pay for something be punished for doing something bad That bully will pay for being mean to my little brother.
pick something out choose picked out three sweaters for you to try on.
pointsomeone/somethingout indicate with your finger I’ll point my boyfriend out when he runs by.
put something down put what you are holding on a surface or floor You can put the groceries down on the kitchen counter.
put someone down insult, make someone feel stupid The students put the substitute teacherdown because his pants were too short.
put something off postpone We are putting off our trip until January because of the hurricane.
put something out extinguish The neighbours put the fire out before the firemen arrived.
put somethingtogether assemble I have to put the crib together before the baby arrives.
put up withsomeone/something tolerate I don’t think I can put up with three small children in the car.
put something on put clothing/accessories on your body Don’t forget to put on your new earrings for the party.
run intosomeone/something meet unexpectedly ran into an old school-friend at the mall.
run oversomeone/something drive a vehicle over a person or thing I accidentally ran over your bicycle in the driveway.
run over/throughsomething rehearse, review Let’s run over/through these lines one more time before the show.
run away leave unexpectedly, escape The child ran away from home and has been missing for three days.
run out have none left We ran out of shampoo so I had to wash my hair with soap.
send something back return (usually by mail) My letter got sent back to me because I used the wrong stamp.
set something up arrange, organize Our boss set a meeting up with the president of the company.
set someone up trick, trap The police set up the car thief by using a hidden camera.
shop around compare prices I want to shop around a little before I decide on these boots.
show off act extra special for people watching (usually boastfully) He always shows off on his skateboard
sleep over stay somewhere for the night (informal) You should sleep over tonight if the weather is too bad to drive home.
sort something out organize, resolve a problem We need to sort the bills out before the first of the month.
stick to something continue doing something, limit yourself to one particular thing You will lose weight if you stick to the diet.
switch something off stop the energy flow, turn off The light’s too bright. Could you switch itoff.
switch something on start the energy flow, turn on We heard the news as soon as weswitched on the car radio.
take after someone resemble a family member take after my mother. We are both impatient.
take something apart purposely break into pieces He took the car brakes apart and found the problem.
take something back return an item I have to take our new TV back because it doesn’t work.
take off start to fly My plane takes off in five minutes.
take something off remove something (usually clothing) Take off your socks and shoes and come in the lake!
take something out remove from a place or thing Can you take the garbage out to the street for me?
take someone out pay for someone to go somewhere with you My grandparents took us out for dinner and a movie.
tear something up rip into pieces tore up my ex-boyfriend’s letters and gave them back to him.
think back remember (often + to, sometimes + on) When I think back on my youth, I wish I had studied harder.
think something over consider I’ll have to think this job offer overbefore I make my final decision.
throw somethingaway dispose of We threw our old furniture away when we won the lottery.
turn something down decrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc) Please turn the TV down while the guests are here.
turn something down refuse turned the job down because I don’t want to move.
turn something off stop the energy flow, switch off Your mother wants you to turn the TVoff and come for dinner.
turn something on start the energy, switch on It’s too dark in here. Let’s turn some lights on.
turn something up increase the volume or strength (heat, light etc) Can you turn the music up? This is my favourite song.
turn up appear suddenly Our cat turned up after we put posters up all over the neighbourhood.
try something on sample clothing I’m going to try these jeans on, but I don’t think they will fit.
try something out test I am going to try this new brand of detergent out.
use something up finish the supply The kids used all of the toothpaste up so we need to buy some more.
wake up stop sleeping We have to wake up early for work on Monday.
warmsomeone/somethingup increase the temperature You can warm your feet up in front of the fireplace.
warm up prepare body for exercise I always warm up by doing sit-ups before I go for a run.
wear off fade away Most of my make-up wore off before I got to the party.
work out exercise work out at the gym three times a week.
work out be successful Our plan worked out fine.
work something out make a calculation We have to work out the total cost before we buy the house.

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Phrasal verbs 1.

I have found this list of phrasal verbs on englishclub.com, which I usually use in class.

letöltés

Verb Meaning Example
ask someone out invite on a date Brian asked Judy out to dinner and a movie.
ask around ask many people the same question asked around but nobody has seen my wallet.
add up to something equal Your purchases add up to $205.32.
back something up reverse You’ll have to back up your car so that I can get out.
back someone up support My wife backed me up over my decision to quit my job.
blow up explode The racing car blew up after it crashed into the fence.
blow something up add air We have to blow 50 balloons up for the party.
break down stop functioning (vehicle, machine) Our car broke down at the side of the highway in the snowstorm.
break down get upset The woman broke down when the police told her that her son had died.
break somethingdown divide into smaller parts Our teacher broke the final project downinto three separate parts.
break in force entry to a building Somebody broke in last night and stole our stereo.
break into something enter forcibly The firemen had to break into the room to rescue the children.
break something in wear something a few times so that it doesn’t look/feel new I need to break these shoes in before we run next week.
break in interrupt The TV station broke in to report the news of the president’s death.
break up end a relationship My boyfriend and I broke up before I moved to America.
break up start laughing (informal) The kids just broke up as soon as the clown started talking.
break out escape The prisoners broke out of jail when the guards weren’t looking.
break out insomething develop a skin condition broke out in a rash after our camping trip.
bring someone down make unhappy This sad music is bringing me down.
bring someone up raise a child My grandparents brought me up after my parents died.
bring something up start talking about a subject My mother walks out of the room when my father brings up sports.
bring something up vomit He drank so much that he brought his dinner up in the toilet.
call around phone many different places/people We called around but we weren’t able to find the car part we needed.
call someone back return a phone call called the company back but the offices were closed for the weekend.
call something off cancel Jason called the wedding off because he wasn’t in love with his fiancé.
call on someone ask for an answer or opinion The professor called on me for question 1.
call on someone visit someone We called on you last night but you weren’t home.
call someone up phone Give me your phone number and I willcall you up when we are in town.
calm down relax after being angry You are still mad. You need to calm down before you drive the car.
not care forsomeone/something not like (formal) I don’t care for his behaviour.
catch up get to the same point as someone else You’ll have to run faster than that if you want to catch up with Marty.
check in arrive and register at a hotel or airport We will get the hotel keys when wecheck in.
check out leave a hotel You have to check out of the hotel before 11:00 AM.
checksomeone/somethingout look at carefully, investigate The company checks out all new employees.
check outsomeone/something look at (informal) Check out the crazy hair on that guy!
cheer up become happier She cheered up when she heard the good news.
cheer someone up make happier I brought you some flowers to cheer youup.
chip in help If everyone chips in we can get the kitchen painted by noon.
clean something up tidy, clean Please clean up your bedroom before you go outside.
come acrosssomething find unexpectedly came across these old photos when I was tidying the closet.
come apart separate The top and bottom come apart if you pull hard enough.
come down withsomething become sick My nephew came down with chicken pox this weekend.
come forward volunteer for a task or to give evidence The woman came forward with her husband’s finger prints.
come fromsomewhere originate in The art of origami comes from Asia.
count onsomeone/something rely on I am counting on you to make dinner while I am out.
cross something out draw a line through Please cross out your old address and write your new one.
cut back onsomething consume less My doctor wants me to cut back onsweets and fatty foods.
cut something down make something fall to the ground We had to cut the old tree in our yarddown after the storm.
cut in interrupt Your father cut in while I was dancing with your uncle.
cut in pull in too closely in front of another vehicle The bus driver got angry when that carcut in.
cut in start operating (of an engine or electrical device) The air conditioner cuts in when the temperature gets to 22°C.
cut something off remove with something sharp The doctors cut off his leg because it was severely injured.
cut something off stop providing The phone company cut off our phone because we didn’t pay the bill.
cut someone off take out of a will My grandparents cut my father off when he remarried.
cut something out remove part of something (usually with scissors and paper) cut this ad out of the newspaper.
dosomeone/somethingover beat up, ransack (Br.E., informal) He’s lucky to be alive. His shop was done over by a street gang.
do something over do again (N.Amer.) My teacher wants me to do my essayover because she doesn’t like my topic.
do away withsomething discard It’s time to do away with all of these old tax records.
do something up fasten, close Do your coat up before you go outside. It’s snowing!
dress up wear nice clothing It’s a fancy restaurant so we have todress up.
drop back move back in a position/group Andrea dropped back to third place when she fell off her bike.
drop in/by/over come without an appointment I might drop in/by/over for tea sometime this week.
dropsomeone/somethingoff take someone/something somewhere and leave them/it there I have to drop my sister off at work before I come over.
drop out quit a class, school etc dropped out of Science because it was too difficult.
eat out eat at a restaurant I don’t feel like cooking tonight. Let’s eat out.
end up eventually reach/do/decide We ended up renting a movie instead of going to the theatre.
fall apart break into pieces My new dress fell apart in the washing machine.
fall down fall to the ground The picture that you hung up last nightfell down this morning.
fall out separate from an interior The money must have fallen out of my pocket.
fall out (of hair, teeth) become loose and unattached His hair started to fall out when he was only 35.
figure something out understand, find the answer I need to figure out how to fit the piano and the bookshelf in this room.
fill something in to write information in blanks (Br.E.) Please fill in the form with your name, address, and phone number.
fill something out to write information in blanks (N.Amer.) The form must be filled out in capital letters.
fill something up fill to the top I always fill the water jug up when it is empty.
find out discover We don’t know where he lives. How can we find out?
find something out discover We tried to keep the time of the party a secret, but Samantha found it out.
get somethingacross/over communicate, make understandable I tried to get my point across/over to the judge but she wouldn’t listen.
get along/on like each other I was surprised how well my new girlfriend and my sister got along/on.
get around have mobility My grandfather can get around fine in his new wheelchair.
get away go on a vacation We worked so hard this year that we had to get away for a week.
get away withsomething do without being noticed or punished Jason always gets away with cheating in his maths tests.
get back return We got back from our vacation last week.
get something back receive something you had before Liz finally got her Science notes backfrom my room-mate.
get back at someone retaliate, take revenge My sister got back at me for stealing her shoes. She stole my favourite hat.
get back intosomething become interested in something again I finally got back into my novel and finished it.
get on something step onto a vehicle We’re going to freeze out here if you don’t let us get on the bus.
get over something recover from an illness, loss, difficulty I just got over the flu and now my sister has it.
get over something overcome a problem The company will have to close if it can’tget over the new regulations.
get round tosomething finally find time to do (N.Amer.:get around to something) I don’t know when I am going to get round to writing the thank you cards.
get together meet (usually for social reasons) Let’s get together for a BBQ this weekend.
get up get out of bed got up early today to study for my exam.
get up stand You should get up and give the elderly man your seat.
give someone away reveal hidden information about someone His wife gave him away to the police.
give someone away take the bride to the altar My father gave me away at my wedding.
give something away ruin a secret My little sister gave the surprise partyaway by accident.
give something away give something to someone for free The library was giving away old books on Friday.
give something back return a borrowed item I have to give these skates back to Franz before his hockey game.
give in reluctantly stop fighting or arguing My boyfriend didn’t want to go to the ballet, but he finally gave in.
give something out give to many people (usually at no cost) They were giving out free perfume samples at the department store.
give something up quit a habit I am giving up smoking as of January 1st.
give up stop trying My maths homework was too difficult so I gave up.
go after someone follow someone My brother tried to go after the thief in his car.
go after something try to achieve something went after my dream and now I am a published writer.
go against someone compete, oppose We are going against the best soccer team in the city tonight.
go ahead start, proceed Please go ahead and eat before the food gets cold.
go back return to a place I have to go back home and get my lunch.
go out leave home to go on a social event We’re going out for dinner tonight.
go out with someone date Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.
go over something review Please go over your answers before you submit your test.
go over visit someone nearby I haven’t seen Tina for a long time. I think I’ll go over for an hour or two.
go without something suffer lack or deprivation When I was young, we went withoutwinter boots.
grow apart stop being friends over time My best friend and I grew apart after she changed schools.
grow back regrow My roses grew back this summer.
grow up become an adult When Jack grows up he wants to be a fireman.
grow out ofsomething get too big for Elizabeth needs a new pair of shoes because she has grown out of her old ones.
grow into something grow big enough to fit This bike is too big for him now, but he should grow into it by next year.

Proverbs – Business

Business

  • A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
  • Business before pleasure.
  • Don’t count your chickens before they’re hatched.
  • Don’t put the cart before the horse.
  • Don’t throw the baby out with the bathwater.
  • Everybody’s business is nobody’s business.
  • Great minds think alike.
  • Haste makes waste.
  • He is the best general who makes the fewest mistakes.
  • He knows the cost of everything and the value of nothing.
  • He that cannot obey cannot command.
  • He who is master of himself will soon be master of others.
  • He who rides a tiger is afraid to dismount.
  • He whose face gives no light, shall never become a star.
  • Hope for the best and prepare for the worst.
  • If you can’t beat them, join them.

letöltés (1)

  • If you run after two hares, you’ll catch neither.
  • It is best to be on the safe side.
  • More haste, less speed.
  • Too many cooks spoil the broth.
  • When in doubt, do nothing.

(originally published on rong-chang.com)

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